DESCRIPTION: Preterm infants residing in an NICU
massage reif randomly assigned to a massage therapy or to a control group.
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The massage group had lower anxiety and less depressed mood immediately Field T, Henteleff T, Hernandez-Reif M, Martinez E, Kunjana M, Kuhn C. Infants and toddlers (M age = years) with sleep onset problems were given daily massages by their parents for 15 minutes prior to bedtime for one month. Maria Hernandez-Reif · Maria Hernandez- Receiving massage first versus giving massage first was counterbalanced across subjects. Immediately after the .
Moderate pressure massage has massage reif to many positive effects including increased weight gain in preterm infants, reduced pain in different syndromes including fibromyalgia and rheumatoid arthritis, enhanced attentiveness, reduced depression and enhanced immune function increased natural killer cells and natural killer cell activity.
Surprisingly, these studies have not been reviewed, highlighting the need for the current massage reif. When moderate light pressure massage have been compared in laboratory studies, moderate pressure massage reduced depression, anxiety and heart rate, and it altered EEG patterns, as in a relaxation response. Moderate pressure massage has also led to increased vagal activity
massage reif decreased cortisol levels.
Functional magnetic resonance imaging data have suggested
massage reif moderate pressure massage massage reif represented in several brain regions including the amygdala, the hypothalamus and the anterior cingulate cortex, all areas involved in stress and emotion regulation. Further research is needed to identify underlying neurophysiological and biochemical mechanisms associated with moderate pressure massage.
Massage therapy is one of the most effective and widely used alternative therapies. Although this review does not cover all conditions that have been positively affected by massage, massage reif is focused on some specific conditions for the following reasons: Natural killer cells, in turn, ward off viral, bacterial and cancer cells, and in that way enhance immune function and reduce illness and disease.
Our first massage therapy study focused on weight gain in preterm infants. After we documented preterm infant weight gain following massage in several studies, we reported data showing increased vagal activity and gastric motility, which could be leading to more efficient food absorption and increased weight gain. In another study, we noted higher levels of insulin and IGF-1 growth factor when we compared a massage group who received three, minute massages per day for five days to a control group who received standard nursery massage reif without massage therapy.
Weight gain was correlated with insulin and IGF-1 levels. analyses suggested that increased vagal activity was associated with increased gastric motility, which, in turn, was related to greater massage reif gain, and increased IGF-1 was also related to greater weight gain. These findings suggested two potential pathways by which massage can increase weight gain: Increased temperature is another potential underlying mechanism for the massage therapy effects on weight gain inasmuch as lower temperatures are associated with energy expenditure that could result in weight loss.
Temperature was assessed in preterm neonates massage reif assigned to a control or massage therapy group. This likely resulted from the heat-producing effect of rubbing the skin. Another group explored reduced energy expenditure as a potential underlying mechanism in preterm neonates receiving massage.
Their metabolic measurements by massage reif calorimetry suggested that energy expenditure was significantly lower in the preterm infants after a five-day massage therapy period than after a period without massage. This decreased energy expenditure may be in part responsible for the increased weight gain associated with massage therapy.
Moderate pressure was a critical factor for the weight gain effect. This was documented in a study in which we directly compared moderate moving the skin versus light pressure light stroking massage.
massage reif had lower heart rate and greater vagal
massage reif. All of these changes suggested lower arousal, which, in turn, could explain the massage reif immune function noted in preterm neonates following massage in a study on delayed-onset sepsis.
The incidence of delayed-onset sepsis was significantly lower in the massage group who also had a shorter hospital stay by 7 dayswhich likely resulted from the lower incidence of sepsis.
A potential pathway for the moderate pressure massage effects may be increased vagal activity, decreased cortisol, enhanced immune function and reduced sepsis. Inflated
massage reif cytokines such as IL-1, IL-6 and TNF-alpha should also be measured for their contribution to sepsis and their potential reduction
massage reif moderate pressure massage.
Several follow-up studies across infancy have revealed significant developmental benefits for massaged premies. Massage reif as there is a disproportionate incidence of preterm infants born to depressed women, massage was used as a prenatal intervention for those women in several studies. In at least 4 studies, massaging depressed pregnant women resulted in better neonatal outcomes less prematurity and low birthweight.
Inasmuch as the uterine artery carries oxygen and nutrients to the fetus, the constriction of the artery could lead to prematurity and lower birthweight. Full-term infants also benefit from massage. In one study, for example, full-term newborns who received moderate versus light pressure massage from their mothers gained more weight and had better development over the first month of life. Massage has resulted in reduced pain in all the studies we have conducted on chronic pain conditions from lower back pain during pregnancy to labor pain, migraine headaches, premenstrual syndrome, chronic fatigue, fibromyalgia, carpal tunnel syndrome and rheumatoid arthritis.
In a recent review, the majority of the 25 studies that were covered employed a similar massage lasting minutes and given twice-weekly over 5 weeks with assessments before and after the first and last session at the end of the treatment massage reif. In a study on postoperative pain management in adults, back massages resulted in decreased pain intensity as well as lower anxiety levels.
Arthritis patients have also experienced less pain following massage. For example, individuals with hand arthritis had less pain and greater grip strength following massage therapy 22 and even less pain when applying a topical analgesic following the The participants were massaged on the wrists, arms and shoulders once a week for one month and they were also taught the massage and asked to massage themselves once a day. The moderate versus the light pressure massage therapy group had less pain and greater grip strength following the first and last massage sessions.
By the end of the one — month massage period the moderate pressure versus the light pressure group less pain, greater grip strength and greater range of motion in their wrists, elbows, and shoulders. Research on the lower limbs has focused on the knee. Massage outcomes have been positive for osteoarthritis of the knee 34 in which a dose response curve was noted with a plateau at 60 minutes per week.
The positive effects of the massage therapy in some of these studies have been equivalent to active therapies including physical therapy. In a review of 9 systematic studies on the use of massage therapy for low back pain, for example, massage reif was more effective than placebo. Massage has also been effective for both acute pain and mood in a study on cancer patients.
Massage was more effective than simple-touch for immediate pain relief and mood shifts. Similar data have been reported for breast cancer patients. Some large cancer centers in the U.
Although most of the pain
massage reif have been conducted on patients in hospitals or clinics, laboratory research has also been reported on the effects of massage on pain. For example, one group studied the effects of massage on mechanical pressure pain thresholds and perceived pain. Exercises were then performed to induce delayed onset muscle soreness. The mechanism that has been most frequently used to explain massage reif therapy effects on pain syndromes is called The Gate Control Theory.
Massage reif metaphor has been used for the electrical and biochemical changes that are thought to occur following a pain stimulus. However, this theory has been controversial. Another theory relates pain to deep sleep deprivation. In deep sleep, less substance P is released and therefore less pain occurs because substance P causes pain. Reputedly, lamina I of the superficial dorsal horn contains the main massage reif of spinal substance Massage reif responsive neurons.
And, serotonin is also related to decreased substance P. Further research is needed to test these models. Basic problems for hands-on therapy research like massage are the ethical problem of randomly assigning individuals to a no-treatment control group when a treatment is known to be effective as well as the inability to double-blind studies.
Increased attentiveness has been noted in a study by our group following minute chair massages. These EEG patterns were related to better performance after the massage on math computations including performing the calculations in less time and with massage reif accuracy immediately after the massages.
The massage effects on attentiveness might be mediated by increased vagal activity. The vagus nerve branch to the heart slows heart rate. Enhanced attentiveness in children with autism and adolescents with ADHD following moderate pressure massage may also be mediated massage reif increased vagal activity.
Depressed individuals often have greater right than left frontal lobe EEG activity 57 Greater right frontal EEG activation is associated with negative emotions and with withdrawal or less approach behavior. Frontal EEG has shifted from right to left in depressed adolescents 58 and adults even after a short session of moderate pressure massage. Cortisol levels that are often high in depression have decreased following moderate pressure massage 60 as have neurotransmitters associated with stress, i.
Children with cancer have benefited from moderate pressure massage. Natural killer cells and natural killer cell activity have increased following moderate pressure massage. Natural killer cell activity has increased in preterm infants who received massage compared with sham therapy light pressure massage
massage reif. Natural killer cells and natural killer cell cytotoxicity activity also increased our studies on women with breast cancer.
For example, in one study, massage therapy was given to young men after exercise-induced muscle damage. Moderate pressure appears to be necessary for increased vagal activity and its effects. Animal studies indicate that stimulating pressure receptors activates the vagus nerve.
The moderate pressure group also showed more positive affect and a shift toward left frontal EEG activation. The light pressure massage group, in contrast, had increased arousal, including increased heart rate and decreased delta and increased beta activity.
The vibratory stimulation group also showed increased arousal, as indicated by increased heart rate and increased alpha and beta activity. In another study we conducted on different pressure massages, adults were randomly assigned to a moderate pressure or a light pressure massage group, and EKGs were recorded.
Another lab reported that following moderate pressure massage, oxytocin increased and ACTH the precursor the stress hormone cortisol decreased. Comparisons of pre-post blood values suggested greater oxytocin levels and lower ACTH, nitric oxide and beta-endorphin levels in the moderate pressure massage group.
Massage reif have also quantified the changes in muscle activity that occurred after different pressure massages.
Compared with light pressure massage, moderate pressure massage produced a greater reduction in the stretch reflex. A reduction in the stretch reflex would be desirable because spinal hyperexcitability is associated with chronic pain syndromes.
The model we have been exploring for the massage effectsnc is that moderate pressure as massage reif stimulation of pressure receptors the skin enhances vagal activity which, in turn, massage reif cortisol leading to many effects including reduced pain and increased immune function. Vagal activity consistently increases following moderate pressure massage.
Anatomical massage reif suggest that baroreceptors, and to a lesser extent, mechanoreceptors within and beneath the skin i. Pacinian massage reif transmit signals to the vagus to the nucleus ambiguous and the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus. Another group that has used functional magnetic imaging noted that moderate pressure massage was represented in the anterior cingulate cortex.
The force and velocity were held constant across conditions. Human touch was as most pleasant, particularly when combined with movement. The fMRI results suggested that human massage reif with movement most strongly activated the anterior cingulate cortex. The authors suggested that these data were consistent with findings on other rewarding pleasant touch. Increased vagal activity is associated with lower heart rate and blood pressure as well as decreased cortisol levels.
Moderate pressure massage has increased weight massage reif in preterm infants, reduced pain in different syndromes including fibromyalgia and rheumatoid arthritis, enhanced attentiveness, reduced depression and improved immune function increased natural killer cells and natural killer cell activity.
When moderate and light pressure massage have been compared, moderate pressure massage reduced depression, anxiety and heart rate, altered EEG patterns and increased vagal activity, as in a massage reif response. Increased vagal activity has also been associated decreased cortisol following massage.
This exploratory within-subjects study compared the effects of elder retired volunteers giving massage to infants with receiving massage themselves. For another 3 weeks, three times per week, the same elderly volunteers massaged infants at a nursery school. Receiving massage first versus giving massage first was counterbalanced across subjects. Immediately after the first- and last-day sessions of giving massages, the elder retired volunteers had less anxiety and depression and lower stress hormones salivary cortisol levels.
Over the 3-week period, depression and catecholamines norepinephrine and epinephrine decreased and lifestyle and health improved. These effects were not as strong for the 3-week period when they received massage, possibly because the elder retired volunteers initially felt awkward about being massaged and because they derived more satisfaction massaging the infants. If you have the appropriate software installed, you can download article citation data to the citation manager of your choice.
Simply select your manager software from the list below and click on download. Skip to main content. Journal of Applied Gerontology. Saul Schanberg Saul Schanberg. Download PDF Article information.
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Pediatric massage is the complementary and alternative treatment that uses massage therapy , or "the manual manipulation of soft tissue intended to promote health and well-being" for children and adolescents. Pediatric massage therapy takes into consideration each child's individual physical development, cognitive development and health care needs. Infant massage is a type of complementary and alternative treatment that uses massage therapy for human infants.
This therapy has been practiced globally, and has been increasingly used in Western countries as a treatment for infants, though the scientific evidence supporting its use is limited. Research into the effectiveness of massage therapy on full term infants has found some tentative evidence for some benefits such as gross motor skills, fine motor skills and psychomotor development, though the evidence is not strong enough to recommend universally, and more research is needed. Research shows that massage therapy can ease both physical symptoms as well as emotional discomforts associated with pediatric medical conditions.
Pediatric massage also can help manage chronic conditions such as asthma by providing relaxation and reducing muscle tone in the chest, back and neck, nausea , constipation and muscle aches myalgia. Immediately after receiving massage, children with mild to moderate juvenile rheumatoid arthritis notice decreased anxiety and stress hormone cortisol levels.
Pediatric massage was also found to have benefit in relieving post-traumatic stress. Like many other complementary and alternative medicine modalities, many research studies reporting benefit from pediatric massage have been small in scale and vulnerable to bias.
Comprehensive medical reviews of the existing pediatric massage research reinforce the benefits, but ask for larger-scale, scientifically rigorous studies.
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Is he emotionally unavailable or afraid of intimacy?Maria Hernandez-Reif · Maria Hernandez- Receiving massage first versus giving massage first was counterbalanced across subjects. Immediately after the . Multiple sclerosis patients benefit from massage therapy. Maria Hernandez-Reif The massage group had lower anxiety and less depressed mood immediately ..
The massage group had lower anxiety and less depressed mood immediately Field T, Henteleff T, Hernandez-Reif M, Martinez E, Kunjana M, Kuhn C. Infants and toddlers (M age = years) with sleep onset problems were given daily massages by their parents for 15 minutes prior to bedtime for one month. The massage therapy subjects reported fewer distress symptoms, less pain, more headache free days, fewer sleep disturbances and they showed Keywords: Migraine, massage therapy, pain, stress, serotonin Maria Hernandez-reif et al.