DESCRIPTION: Graffenried, Christoph von, Baron, Ed. Vincent HollisEd. Text transcribed by Apex Data Services, Inc.Chai Latte: I co ta Natalia Zuk nieznajaca polskiego ma byc Polka ? Pierdolona kacapska propaganda . Kacapy jebane sami promujcie sobie randki z ciapatymi fuj, tfu pluje na was . Na taki spierdolony pomysl mogl wpasc tylko kacap . nie jestem rasista jakby co . A ten polski jest taki slaby ze az zygac sie chce. tfu ;(
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Graffenried, Christoph von, Baron, Ed. Vincent HollisEd. Text transcribed by Apex Data Services, Inc. Clifford Dyer, and Natalia Smith First edition, ca. It may be used freely by individuals for research, teaching and personal use as long as this statement of availability is included in the text. Todd Julius Goebel p. The text has been entered using double-keying and verified against the original. The eszett which is used in German Fraktur typeface has been printed as an ss in the text of this electronic edition.
Original grammar, punctuation, and spelling have been preserved. Encountered typographical errors have been preserved, and appear in red type. All footnotes are inserted at the point of reference within paragraphs.
Any hyphens occurring in line breaks have been removed, and the trailing part of a word has been joined to the preceding line. All quotation marks, em dashes and ampersand have been transcribed as entity references. All double right and left quotation marks are encoded as " and " respectively.
All single right and left quotation marks verkaufe mein Haus mit sitzenden Mietern encoded as ' and ' respectively. Running titles have not been preserved. Virginia -- Description and travel -- Early works to North Carolina -- Description
verkaufe mein Haus mit sitzenden Mietern travel -- Early works to North Carolina -- History -- Colonial period, ca.
North Carolina -- Politics and government -- To Graffenried, Christoph von, Baron, Swiss Americans -- North Carolina. Palatine Americans -- North Carolina. Whites -- North Carolina -- Relations with Indians. Beginning with reference numeral 4 there is an error in each of the reference numerals through number To correct the references: On pageparagraph verkaufe mein Haus mit sitzenden Mietern, against the word "appearances" place the numeral 4.
On pages read 4 as 5, 5 as 6, and so on through number This will make the reference numerals read from 1 to 57 in order, and correspond with the numerals in the German original, the French original, and the translation of the French. With such a proportion of Germans, is it not strange that almost nothing is said in our histories about this great element of our population; about the causes that induced them to leave their homes; about the circumstances of their first settlements; about their influence upon the growth of our common culture?
The reason of this lies, partly in the undeveloped provincial character of American historiography, partly in the fact that American History was first written by men from New England.
They wrote of the things with which they were most familiar, their own Puritan commonwealths and verkaufe mein Haus mit sitzenden Mietern institutions developed from them. Biased by provincial prejudices they overlooked other events of equally great importance, so that their histories read like a one-sided glorification of their ancestors.
A very powerful contributory cause for this discrimination is the fact that the Germans made their settlements comparatively late, and for the most part avoided New England.
By the time the first permanent settlements were made at Germantown, near Philadelphia New England had passed through some of its most epoch-making experiences. The colonies about Massachusetts Bay, Connecticut and Rhode Island had been settled and their characteristic institutions, which have come down to our own time, were becoming fixed in laws and customs of the people.
American historiography as first conceived by New England historians has since followed the same or similar lines, and until recently when the German-Americans themselves took up the work, very little, in general, was known about the early life of this portion of our population.
It is to be hoped that this regrettable division in matters of historical truth will be done away with, and since no one nationality can rightfully claim all the honor of having made America what verkaufe mein Haus mit sitzenden Mietern is, Germans as well as Puritans and Cavaliers will come to be recognized for what they are or have done, and not be excluded from consideration for what they have not done.
II, pages, ff gives
verkaufe mein Haus mit sitzenden Mietern rather extended and appreciative notice of the Germans in Pennsylvania. In a foot note on page he mentions the manuscripts on which this paper has been based.
Government in Massachusetts; but it is to the German settlers at Schoharie that we, in a large measure, owe the fortunate outcome of the French and Indian war, for it was they who kept the Six Nations from joining the French, when such an event would have spelled disaster to the New York and New England colonies; they did not give us theocracies from which a doubtful ideal of the state eventually evolved; but they helped to give us freedom of conscience, the very corner-stone of modern politics, and it is to the German printer in New York that we owe an untrammeled public press.
Who shall say which is the worthier? It is not sufficient then to know that in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries a large number of Germans came to America, and made or tried to make certain settlements. We want to go further and learn about their life and work and be able to appreciate them as we do the other pioneers. It is for this reason that a study of Baron Christoph von Graffenried's settlements may be considered worth while. This colony in North Carolina would have consisted of only a few Swiss adventurers but for the events of the year These enlarged the scope, increased the prestige of the undertaking, gave the leadership to one of the few ever to possess a title of nobility in Locke's new American order, made this pioneer of several Swiss undertakings the nearest approach to Locke's ideal that ever existed in America, and taking it out of its isolation, made it a part of the great German migration of ; a consideration of which may properly precede the study of Graffenried's own adventures.
Since a man should be judged by his intentions and by the times in which he lived, as well as by the actual results of his efforts, it has seemed well to quote from or make references to the writings of contemporaries wherever possible.
Society,pages The great stream of emigration from Germany to England and from thence to America, beginning rather feebly in the latter part of the seventeenth century, then suddenly swelling to such enormous proportions that more Germans had come to New York, Pennsylvania, and North Carolina in one year than had come to New England in the first ten years of the settlements about Massachusetts Bay, has as its fundamental cause the great intellectual movement of the Reformation, and the equally intense Counter Reformation which began in the latter part of the sixteenth century and extended far into the seventeenth century.
Since the Protestant Reformation in England had come rather later than in Germany, and had not been so radical at the start, English reformers long looked upon Germany as
verkaufe mein Haus mit sitzenden Mietern fatherland of the Reformation, and during the persecutions which accompanied the reaction under Mary those who escaped over seas found refuge in Holland, Germany and Switzerland.
Under Elizabeth protestantism was again gradually restored, but there was no place for any who disagreed with verkaufe mein Haus mit sitzenden Mietern church as established by the state and dissenters were severely punished, but still the sentiment of protest grew until after the revolution ofwhen Cromwell, having finally become a dictator, was able to introduce a second reformation, which led to a wider separation from Rome.
He hoped to secure the ground gained, by a union of the protestant states against the Catholic Spanish world. He conceived England to be the champion protector of protestantism, and by such a union, he hoped to make it a world power. During the reigns of Charles II and James II there was another reaction which, however, was not so violent as that in the reign of Mary.
When William of Orange became King of England protestantism was again fully restored and there was even some relief given dissenters. It was Queen Verkaufe mein Haus mit sitzenden Mietern, however, who took up Cromwell's work, and to the best of her Page 10 ability carried out his program of national and protestant expansion.
Public opinion, moreover, was, to a large degree, with her in this matter. Interest in the German protestant situation was kept alive by pamphlets which gave information about the conditions of the Reformation in Germany and particularly in the Palatinate to which they felt related because of the marriage of Elizabeth, daughter of James I of England, to the Electro Frederick, better known as the Winter King.
This interest was further increased since the cause had been compelled to fight for its life in Germany as well as in England. Not only the wars which came in Luther's time and immediately following his death were caused by the Reformation; but the Thirty Years' War and the wars in which the French King, Louis involved Europe during his long reign were also very largely incited by the same spirit of enmity that animated the earlier Counter Reformation.
In all these struggles no portion of Germany suffered so much as that part called the Lower Palatinate. III, page ff. By the Peace of Westphalia the Lutheran and Reformed religions had been established in the Palatinate and the Catholic religion was allowed only on sufferance of the Elector.
But now under John William religious toleration was announced, and
verkaufe mein Haus mit sitzenden Mietern Roman Catholic religion thereby put upon a theoretical equality with the other two. As a matter of fact, he went further and took revenues, churches, and schools belonging to the Protestants, whether or not they had been Catholic property, and turned them to Catholic uses, or else arranged for Catholics and Protestants to have joint possession of the church edifices.
He refused to allow Protestant clergymen to sit in the Ecclesiastical Council; and verkaufe mein Haus mit sitzenden Mietern the people protested, he said that the "ministers were seditious rebels. The persecution, also, often took the form of bodily injury and death was frequently the result. No wonder, then, the poorer subjects became alarmed. In Switzerland the Anabaptists having no legal status had always been exposed to the doubtful mercies of the bigoted Reformed Church.
In other provinces of Germany, as well as in the Palatinate, there was great suffering among the poorer classes because of the oppressions of the petty princes who fashioned their after the model of Versailles, plunged into extravagance and excess of all kinds, the burden of which fell upon the laboring classes who suffered severely from the exorbitant taxes and tolls demanded to defray these expenses.
This widespread poverty, and the religious persecutions had for years been producing a general unrest, and those who saw no hope of better verkaufe mein Haus mit sitzenden Mietern at home began to look to America as a place where they could go and be safe. A rather small colony had gone to Pennsylvania with Pastorius as early asand a few families or single persons had gone every year since. Another small company, 50 persons in all, under the Lutheran pastor, Kocherthal, came to England in and were sent to New York.
In a further cause was given in an exceedingly hard winter. That same spring and summer great numbers of Germans came through Holland to England and were given all possible care by public and private philanthropy. This is generally spoken of as the Palatine Migration, but the name is misleading because there were
verkaufe mein Haus mit sitzenden Mietern other German-speaking people in the movement.
The majority of these immigrants did, however, come from the Palatinate; and as the English people were interested in that province, they gave the name without distinction to all who came. The causes mentioned, together with the so-called German Wanderlust and the attraction which America had for Europeans, have been considered sufficient to explain this migration. But are they sufficient? Is there not a more important problem still unsolved?
The truth is Queen Anne was attempting to continue Cromwell's plan of expansion, and in this program there was need of increasing her subjects at home and in the colonies, by inviting, and even subsidizing, people to settle in British America.
At the same time also the Proprietors of the Provinces were quite as anxious as the Queen
verkaufe mein Haus mit sitzenden Mietern have their territories settled; and no one was more industrious than Penn in advertising his province.
Yet the subject is difficult to treat, because direct evidence is not plentiful, since no one wished to take the responsibility of tempting the subjects to leave their rightful lord. But there was one document which had great, perhaps the greatest, influence in persuading people to go to America; and that was a small volume printed first inby the Reverend Mr.
Kocherthal, just mentioned, had not been to America verkaufe mein Haus mit sitzenden Mietern the time he published his book, but had been in England to make inquiries about the colonies.
Verkaufe mein Haus mit sitzenden Mietern become convinced of the advantages of South Carolina, he wrote a handbook for Germans, Page 14 describing the province, with directions how to go there. This book was so eagerly read that in it had reached its fourth edition.
Graffenried and several of his settlers mention Kocherthal's book, indeed this is the only book the settlers do mention; and from the nature verkaufe mein Haus mit sitzenden Mietern their allusions to it one must conclude they were strongly influenced by it. VII, page 47 ff.
An investigation, detailed mention of which will be made later, brings out the additional fact that another great cause of the emigration was the so-called Golden Book, so named because the Queen's picture adorned one of the front pages, and the title page was printed in gilt letters.
This was evidently a very special and expensive edition, and was probably published with the Queen's permission some time after she had ascended the throne inthe evident intention being to impress German readers. From the language in the report of the investigating committee it is clear that the book was written chiefly in praise of Carolina.
Absolute proof cannot be given; but judging from the coincidence of the date at which the books appeared, Kocherthal's in the Golden Book between andfrom the similarity of the subject matter, both treating of Carolina in particular, and from verkaufe mein Haus mit sitzenden Mietern effect, one may conclude that Kocherthal's book and the Golden Book are identical.
The following passages occur in the fourth edition undoubtedly reprinted from the first, and are among the directions to prospective colonists:. Whereupon finally the proposal was made that the Queen be presented with a supplication to see whether she verkaufe mein Haus mit sitzenden Mietern would not grant the ships, since it then might be that the people would be brought from Holland in the royal ships and thus this expense verkaufe mein Haus mit sitzenden Mietern passage could be saved; but yet in such a case a goodly number of people would have to come together, because if not, it would not be worth while to trouble the Queen, much less to go to so much expense as would be demanded for the ships and convoy.
But these proposals are too extensive to describe here, and yet it is hoped that through them the effort will not be in vain, although in this matter no one can promise anything certain, but must wait and see what dispensation Divine Providence will make in this regard,"-- Kocherthal, page No very definite hopes are held out in these passages, but it would not require the Queen's picture and the gilded title page to give the impression to the poor people into whose hands the book would come, that they might expect help from her, both in crossing the Channel and after their arrival in England, in going to the Colonies.
The effect could be no better with a direct and unequivocal statement, and there would be no danger of serious complications with the German princes, while, likewise, such a procedure would be quite in harmony with her diplomatic methods.
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